Denmark´s decision not to join the European Economic and Monetary Union and its consequences for the country.



Throughout this essay about the Danish economy I am going to focus on why although Denmark is a member of the European Union it has decided not to join the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and I am going to expose the positive and negative consequences of Denmark joining the EMU that I have analyzed through some articles that I have read.

The Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) is a term for the group of policies aimed at converging the economies of all member states of the European Union at three stages. Both the 18 eurozone states and the 10 non-euro states are EMU members. Denmark is currently a member of the European Union (EU) and due to this fact its legislation and regulations conform to the EU standards on almost all issues. However, although Denmark has studied the criteria to join the European Economic and Monetary Union, so far Denmark has decided not to join it. Along this essay you will find some of the advantages and disadvantages that had made Denmark not to join the EMU.

Denmark is not participating in the third stage of EU Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), the third stage of the EMU is the introduction of the euro single currency. This is one of the consequences of the country’s initial “no” vote on the Maastricht Treaty in a 1992 referendum.

A subsequent referendum in 1993 resulted in a majority in favour of the modified version of the Treaty among the otherwise “EU-sceptic” Danish population.

In 2011, Copenhagen joined the Euro Plus Pact, an agreement to apply reforms to improve the fiscal strength and competitiveness of member states. In 2012, it signed the Fiscal Compact Treaty, an agreement that introduces stricter controls on deficits and debt.

It has been argued with increasing intensity that Denmark should give up its reservations, especially regarding the third stage of EMU. However, it has not yet been settled when, or if, there will be a new referendum on Denmark joining the euro.

First, according to some opinion polls that had been carried out, the Danes are deeply split in their views on the euro. A survey conducted in 1996 indicated that just fewer than 50% of the population did not think that the single currency would create any increased economic growth, while just over 50% believed in this growth potential as a result of monetary union. The general attitude among Danes was that the country’s reservation regarding the euro should be maintained. Therefore, it caused a considerable agitation when opinion polls at the beginning of 1999 indicated that there was an overwhelming majority in favour of the euro. Indeed, the figures showed the highest-ever support for a referendum on Denmark’s position in the European Union. These figures suggested that a Danish referendum on its euro “opt-out” might be imminent.

However, in the elections to the European Parliament held at the beginning of June 1999, it was confirmed that EU scepticism is still strong among Danes. In broad terms, the opponents of the EU won another seat so that they now hold six out of the 16 Danish seats in the Parliament. This has caused several observers to state that a referendum on Denmark’s possible full participation in monetary union is probably not as imminent as many people otherwise tended to think.

Second, the discussion of whether Denmark should be part of the “eurozone” in future is often based on economic considerations. In spring 1998, the Ministry of Economic Affairs (Økonomi Ministeriet) published a report on the consequences of being outside the cooperation on the euro. Around 50% of Denmark’s foreign trade is with the eurozone, and if Sweden and the UK join the euro, the figure will rise to around 75%. Barriers to free trade such as exchange rate fluctuations and transaction costs have been eliminated between the euro countries. The new price transparency and the resulting competition would also be an advantage to Danish enterprises, but overall the report concludes that Danish enterprises will not achieve advantages as significant as their competitors in the Eurozone. Denmark must also expect a slightly higher real interest rate if it remains outside the euro.

According to the Trade Union Views (1999), on the part of wage earners, the Danish Federation of Trade Unions (Landsorganisationen i Danmark, LO) has, so far, maintained that it respects the Danish reservations, including the reservation regarding monetary union. However, at the same time, LO has made it clear that it will closely monitor developments in the eurozone and evaluate what consequences non-membership may have for Denmark. For this purpose, LO has, among other measures, set up an EMU committee on which there are representatives from all the large trade unions. The committee aims first and foremost to examine the economic consequences of Denmark’s non-participation in the euro. While focusing on these issues, the committee has also chosen to implement a study of the conditions on the labour market in the USA, examining what consequences the existence of a single currency has had in this large geographical and economic area.

Finally, political costs of being outside the euro: In LO, it has been acknowledged that the euro will be of importance to the cooperation between trade unions in Europe, and that Danish unions risk losing political influence in relation to the countries in the eurozone. This may be seen as an indication that the core countries in the eurozone are forming closer ties, whereas discussions with representatives from Danish organisations are not of such great interest.

One of the paradoxes of Denmark’s reservation regarding the third stage of EMU is that virtually everyone agrees that Denmark will be forced to meet the convergence requirements which have been laid down for the countries participating in the euro, and to follow the  decisions which the euro countries may make, in order not to create financial and monetary policy instability in Denmark. In other words, it could be argued that a “small” currency such as the Danish krone has become a “shadow member” of the eurozone at the same time as the Danes have sidelined themselves from influence on the development of that zone.

The Danes’ general lack of enthusiasm for the EU puts the social partner organisations in a dilemma. They have the possibility of participating in setting the agenda at European level, but, to a great extent, they feel constrained to proceed cautiously because of the wide scepticism among Danish workers. There are admittedly polls which show that a majority of Danes, as well as a majority among, for example, members of LO, generally want Denmark to be a part of the eurozone. However, there is much to indicate that this is a majority which may evaporate quickly the further we move on from the “europhoria” which characterised the introduction of the single currency at the beginning of 1999. The recent elections to the European Parliament were a signal that general EU scepticism remains strong among the Danes. (Søren Kaj Andersen, FAOS)

To sum up, while Denmark probably will enhance its cooperation with the European Union on justice and defense, Danish adoption of the euro remains highly unlikely. However, Because of its current opt-outs, Denmark does not participate in EU decisions related to defense issues and does not contribute troops to missions conducted by the European Union. According to the Danish Ministry of Defense, removing this opt-out would enable the country to save money on defense, since Denmark would share some of its military burden with the European Union. For example, Danish ships are constantly the target of pirates in the Gulf of Aden, and maintaining a constant military presence in the region is expensive for Copenhagen. Joining EU defense projects would enable Denmark to reduce costs.

Most social partner organizations had called for a “yes” vote to the euro. The labour movement was divided on the question, with trade union leaders strongly recommending a “yes”, but many rank-and-file members voting “no”. “We in the trade union movement must now reconsider our European policy and we take note of the fact that many member groups within LO have voted ‘no’ (…) because it is difficult to grasp the European project,” said Mr Jensen (The LO President). He added that it was necessary to engage the “no” voters in a constructive dialogue about future European cooperation: “If the ‘no’ of the Danes develops in the direction of opposition towards any further participation in European cooperation, then the effects will be disastrous for Denmark.

Joining the EMU and introducing the euro as the Danish currency presents more advantages that disadvantages such as: price transparency, competition in Danish entreprises, stable economic policy to ensure a continued basis for investments and employment or the importancy of the euro to the cooperation between trade unions in Europe. To conclude, the Danish should rethink about the possibility of joining the EMU and introducing their euro as its currency.



Eurofound. (1999). Social partners consider advantages and disadvantages of the euro. 1 December 2014, EurWork web site:

Carsten Jørgensen (2000). Denmark votes no to the euro. [ONLINE] Available at: [Last Accessed 1 December 2014].

The world factbook staff. (2013). Denmark economy overview . 2014, de Central intelligence agency Sitio web:

The World Factbook 2013-14. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2013 .

Rafiq, M. S. (2011). Understanding the Interaction between International and Euro Area Output Volatility. Bulletin Of Economic Research, 63(1), 53-81.

Reitz, S., & Taylor, M. P. (2013). The Danish krone-euro exchange rate and Danmark Nationalbank intervention operations. Studies In Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, 17(3), 239-249. doi:10.1515/snde-2012-0016

Wikipedia (21 October 2014). Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union. [ONLINE] Available at: [Last Accessed 1 December 2014].





We live in a very judgemental world, we judge each other because of our religion, our gender, our race…but slowly this extremist has been turning into something less dangerous. Homosexuals, bisexuals and transgender people are one of the most criticized groups but, do you know which country helped them in the accomplishment of one of their great achievements?

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the evolution throughout history of the gays, lesbians, bisexuals and transsexuals in Denmark since they all are a very important part of the society. The right way to study this topic is looking at the different actions that have made the LGBT (Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals and Transsexuals) society so natural accepted around the world, focusing in the country of Denmark. While most countries considered the LGBT society sort of an abomination and unnatural part of their population, the Danish people fought for their rights and were the first ones to accomplish the not so small goal of being recognized legally. Years after the legalization of gay marriage was real, and today’s Danish society is considered to be one in which homosexuals feel the most accepted.

Until and during part the nineteenth-century being homosexual in Denmark was punished by the law: “Relations against nature is punishable by execution” (Danish law, 1683). Then it was just punished with prison and one of the possible causes was “pornography affair”, and finally in 1933 being homosexual was decriminalized (Harris, 2012). But the situation in the rest of Europe was far from this small step of normalization. Different forms of totalitarianism were being practice in Germany, Russia or Spain, and those did not respect the homosexuals, in fact they believed it was a mental problem and thus they meant to be apart from the rest of the people. For example in the Nazi-Germany thousands of them died in concentration camps and in Franco’s Spain they were treated like the beggars or thieves. After the World War II they were also not included as a minority in the Declaration of Human Rights (1948). But during the last decades of the nineteenth-century and the beginning of the twenty-first-century their conditions have improved in an unthinkable way.

The Forbundet af 1948 (League of 1948) was created in 1948 and it became the first organization for homophiles in Denmark, it was a periodical publication, it also gave advice and help to gay people, and prepared social activities. It was extremely supervised by the police and during 1950 a scandal gave the organization a very bad reputation and its number of members drop tremendously also because they were afraid. The homosexual prostitution was not so shocking during those days, scandals about prostitution were a common thing and this was punished according to the “So-called ugly” clause (1961), until 1967 when the law was repealed and both homosexual and heterosexual prostitution actions were legal by the same law that already made pornography legal (Von Rosen, 2000). Six years later the law that banned men to dance together was also repealed. Forbundet af 1948 was not recognized by the government until 1969 when it started its changing political actions just as crossing of the idea that homosexuality was a mental illness in 1981 or creating the term “registered partnership”. Finally in 1989 civil unions or “registered partnerships” between same-sex persons were legalized in Denmark, it was the first country that accomplished this goal and all along the next years other countries such as its Scandinavian neighbors. Denmark was then a role model of tolerance and acceptance for the rest of countries. Axel and Eigil Axgil were the first gay couple that legalized their partnership; it was a remarkable moment in history (Abend, 2009). Most of the Danes backed the law because they felt it was the right thing to do. Therefore Denmark was the pioneer in terms of same-sex civil partnerships, but it did not go further at the time with other aspects such as adoption or marriage.
The following years were full of modifications as well. In 1996 all kinds of anti-gay discrimination were ratified in addition as discrimination of believes, age, nationality, race…Foreigners that had stayed for two years in Denmark had the same rights as the Danes who were in a civil union. The minority of the bisexuals were included in 2002 into the organization which at that time was called the LBL (The National Association for Gays and Lesbians) and in 2008 transsexuals were also invited. At last the organization took over the name LGBT (The national association for gays, lesbians, bisexuals and transpersons); an acronym still in use when speaking about this group of the society internationally. After decades of fighting for their rights, the LGBT Danish organization fulfilled their wish of a legal marriage and not just registered partnership. 85 legislators were in favor, 24 against, 2 blank vote and 68 members were absent during that session. Only the Popular Danish Party was against this law. There is an article in the law that states that pastors are not forced to marry them if they do not wish, because with this law same-sex marriage is allowed in Lutheran Churches; the Church of Denmark. If the minister does not want to celebrate the ceremony he must find another one for the couple, as the law dictates. Furthermore, divorce is equally debated as marriage and it is striking that a small percentage of the gay couples get divorced compared with the heterosexual ones (Abend, 2009).

The registered partnership law affected both heritages and economic areas for the couple but it did not say anything about adoptions or insemination in lesbians (Lewis, 2010). In 1997 it was illegal for lesbians to get an artificial insemination in order to have kids, this also applied to single women; but they found a miscalculation in the clause which did not say anything about midwifes, the law talked just about treatments from doctors. Years later in 2006 the government finally game them the right to artificial insemination, and in 2009 the co-mother was able to adopt the child at birth that her couple had by artificial insemination. Additionally that same year the process to legalize adoption for homosexuals started. Since 1999 they could adopt their step children but it was not before the coming of a new law in 2010 when they had the same rights to adopt as heterosexuals (Harris, 2012).

These days the social status of the LGBT in Denmark is in a very high level. It has to be said how the significant law has modified the Danish society. Copenhagen is nowadays one of the most loved because they all feel greatly welcomed and accepted. This community also gives the LGBT increased rights compared to the rest of the countries around the world, for example their immigration policies are quite open and they have several laws that protect them against discrimination controlled by the Board of Equal Treatment. Fancy activities and festivals are celebrated every year such as the Queer Festival or the Pride Week. They have numerous options of bars and they even have their own radio station, Radio Rosa (Mapes).

It has not been easy for the LGBT community in Denmark to achieve everything they wanted; nevertheless, they are fighting to feel well received in a society in which the traditional thoughts are still going on in some way. From the punishments for being gay to the allowance for public relationships; from the relationships to the legal civil unions; from the registered partnerships to the marriage. All this process including the right to insemination and the right to adopt is what has conceded the Danish LGBT the chance to start a family, to have the same possibilities as the rest of the Danes.

Lewis, R. (2010). Lesbians under Surveillance: Same-Sex Immigration Reform, Gay Rights, and the Problem of Queer Liberalism. Social Justice, 37(1), 90-106.

Abend, L. (2009). A Triumph For Love. Time International (South Pacific Edition), 173(25/26), 80-82.

Bryld, M. (2001). The Infertility Clinic and the Birth of the Lesbian The Political Debate on Assisted Reproduction in Denmark. European Journal of Women’s Studies, 8(3), 299-312.

Rydström, J. (2011). Odd couples: A history of gay marriage in Scandinavia.

George E. Haggerty (2000) Encyclopedia of Gay Histories and Culture. Denmark, 251-253

Ian C. Harris. (2012). LGBT History in Denmark. Retrieved from:

Terri Mapes. Scandinavia for Gays & Lesbians. Retrieved from:

Terri Mapes. Gay Rights in Denmark. Retrieved from:

(2012, November 6) ¿Cómo es la legislación sobre los matrimonios gays en otros países? ABC. Retrieved from:

(2012, June 7) Dinamarca: Aprueban ley que permite a homosexuales casarse en una iglesia. Perú 21. Retrieved from:

LGBT rights in Europe (n.d.) Wikipedia: The free encyclopedia. Retrieved from:

Homosexualidad en Europa (n.d.) Wikipedia: The free encyclopedia. Retrieved from:






The Danish Education System

The educational level in Denmark is one of the highest in the European Union.
The goal of this paper is to examine the main stregths of the Danish education system and to discuss which areas need improvement. Firstly it will analyse its structure and then it will give an overview of the principal domestic politics related to education that have been established in the last few years. As we will see, these measures will ensure the sudents in Denmark to get a distinctive and high-qualified education.

In accordance with Hilda Fingermann (Fingermann, 2011), Denmark has the highest qualified education system in the European Union and a model for the world. The main goal of the education programme in Denmark is to provide all its students with the same expertise and academic learning without taking into account of their social class, sex or the purchasing power of their families (Danish Ministry of Education) The goverment aspire to build the perfect educational structure so as to achieve all these ambitions. This structure is composed by children of various ages that group in different stages:
Scholarship in Denmark is compulsary from 5 to 16 years old. But there are also other day care services for children who are under that ages that benefit parents who can’t take care of them during the day. These centers are called “nursery” or “kindergarten” and, as it is mentioned above, they are optional.
The next stage is called Folkeskole, which is obligatory. It comprises the primary school and lower secondary. Where can a pupil receive this education? They have the opportunity to attend public schools, which are funded by the goverment and incurred by taxpayers, or they can also go to private and independent schools, which are less common and have their own studying schedules .
As for the primary school, also known as elementary school, goes from 5 to 11 years old. After that, they start the lower secondary school, from 12 to 16 years old. Once they have lasted this stage, they can study another optional year. Both primary and lower secondary schools are regulated by the Folkestole Act of each region, that lays down the aims, the school arrangement and its organisation.

Then, students continue their compulsary studies at the upper secondary school, which is regulated by each province, there, students choose the learning that will suit their future university studies (European Agency of Special Needs and Inclusive ducation, 2011) Considering the higher education sector, which is set by the Danish Ministry of Education, includes: Universities, colleges, Academies of profesional higher education and adult education to that people who want to continue or start any study at any time of their life. Also shoud be mentioned some postgraduate degrees, such us Masters and PHD Degrees. (Danish Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation)

Every single educational stage discussed above, higher education included, is free of charged for that students from the EU/EEA and for that students who are taking part on an Exchange programme. That’s one of the reasons that may explain why its population has one of the highest educational level in the world, since all of them have the opportunity to receive both basic and higher education studies. (“Study in denmark,” 2012)

Danish educational system goes over the top. According to the 2012 PISA report, Denmark provides the necessary skills that children need in order to acquire effective and high-level knowledge so as to find a better job in the future. The results of this analysis help the goverment of the country to realize which policies should be applied in order to change for the better and develop the areas where students need to progress. (Balling Rasmussen)
As reported by PISA, the great strenghts of the Danish educational system are the following: public education; high investment, as it spends 2 % of its GDF every year; high qualified teachers, all of them must have university studies; active role of the parents at schools; renewed installations and technological material access, even the exams are taken by the computers; integration policy for foreign students, great involvement of the students during the lessons and especially the desire to continuously improve.

Another factor that uplifts the foreign language learning is that most television series and films are broadcasted in their original version. Moreover, most schools offer billingual studies in English and Danish to the students since they are at elementary school, some of them even at the nursery and day care centers, so students have a high mastery of that language once they have finished their studies. (“¿Qué hacer si,” 2014)

Domestic policy in Denmark focuses on improving this educational system gradually and to be at the forefront of the European education . Some of the the main measures in order to achieve this objective are: setting a common learning programme for all primary and secondary educational systems by the Danish Educational Ministry; teachers should focuse more on their pedagogical role and giving more support to foreign students and to those who need special assistance. Others intentions are introducing more optional courses and sport activities among the established educational programmes and also providing the teachers with more training and renewed academic learning. One of the principal goals the Danish Goverment pretends to accomplish is magnifying the internationalisation, that is to say, increasing the outgoing students by promoting Erasmus and other exchange programmes by the goverment’s fundings. (“Education policy outlook,” 2014)

Finally, considering that this country not only spends a lot of money on educational investment, but also tries to promote new regulations so as to update the educational system, is to be expected that the Danish education is one of the best in the world. (“Combinig the best,” 2012) The population needs change over time, so the academic learning must be adapted to the requests they call. Denmarks perfectly deals with that challenges.


Fingermann, H. (2011). Education in denmark. Retrieved from

Danish Ministry of Education. (n.d.). The Danish educational system. Retrieved from

European Agency of Special Needs and Inclusive Education. (2011, November 18). La educación inclusiva en Europa. Retrieved from

Danish Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation. (n.d.). Higher studies in denmark. Retrieved from

Study in denmark. (2012). Retrieved from

Balling Rasmussen, J. (n.d.). El proceso “pisa” en dinamarca. Retrieved from

¿Qué hacer si no eres capaz de mantener una conversación en inglés?. (2014, September 4). Retrieved from

Education policy outlook denmark. (2014, April). Retrieved from POLICY OUTLOOK DENMARK_EN.pdf

Combinig the best of the danish and the german educational systems . (2012, November). Retrieved from af elever/PRESSE/Presse Scan Magazin.pdf



Country’s fact sheets (fichas de país) provided by the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation constitute a great introduction to the main diplomatic aspects of Denmark. Even more remarkable is the detailed information it supplies about the relations between Denmark and Spain. However, the information is in Spanish.


It is a blog entry from a reference blog as The Broker is. It brings together cutting-edge knowledge and expert opinions from researchers, policymakers and practitioners. The Broker acts as an intermediary between knowledge networks, brokering global development knowledge to inform practitioners and provide new and integrated perspectives on current global policy issues. The article describes Danish global role since 1960 to the 2000s.


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The BBC news country profiles provide information about the economy and politics of the different countries. In this link you will be able to find basic information about Denmark such as its history, turning points for the country and its main leaders. In addition, they also provide the basic information about Denmark that you can read below:

  • Full name: Kingdom of Denmark
  • Population: 5.6 million (UN, 2012)
  • Capital: Copenhagen
  • Area: 43,098 sq km (16,640 sq miles)
  • Major language: Danish
  • Major religion: Christianity
  • Life expectancy: 77 years (men), 81 years (women) (UN)
  • Monetary unit: 1 krone = 100 ore
  • Main exports: Machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals
  • GNI per capita: US $60,160 (World Bank, 2011)
  • Internet domain: .dk
  • International dialling code: +45

The economist is a weekly newspaper where you can find all sorts of articles with different information about Denmark and its economy.

 the economist

The odora is an informational web site consisting of millions of pages. The information is updated and we consider that the information provided is accurate and useful. Most of the information they provide comes from the CIA world factbook which is a very reliable and helpful source.

the cia world factbook

At The site you can find all kinds of different information about Denmark, it gives the basic information about the economy of Denmark.

This link gives some general information about Denmark but it also goes deep into its economy and its different areas.



Keeping health care expenditure down in times with a growing aging population and an increase in chronic diseases is a universal challenge, but Denmark has managed to do that.
The Danish government has initiated the modernization of its healthcare sector, beginning with a new hospital structure.

dinamarca hospital Read More


The World Factbook is a reference resource of the CIA which has different kinds of data about the countries of the world. In this link you will be able to see classified information about Denmark (its society, geography, energy, communications, government, economy, military…)


The official website of Denmark in which you can find quick facts about the country, a description of its society, lifestyle and culture, what makes the Danes such open people, why is Denmark such an ecologic country…

copenhagen cooking

In this video published by the CNN News it is explained why is Denmark the happiest country in the world. This aspect of their culture is one of the things that makes the rest of the world be jealous of them because living in the happiest place on earth is a great privilege the Danes have and everyone wants to know why is that.


  • THE HEROIC LEGENDS OF DENMARK. Scandinavian Monographs VI by Axel Olrik; Lee M. Hollander
  • Review by: Gudmund Schütte
  • Scandinavian Studies and Notes, Vol. 6, No. 7 (AUGUST, 1921), pp. 210-221
  • Published by: University of Illinois Press on behalf of the Society for the Advancement of Scandinavian Study
  • Article Stable URL:

This monograph is considered one the most famous that includes fairy tales, ballads, songs, folklore and mythology… of not only Scandinavian countries in general but specially of the Danish culture.


This source is definitely not one of the most reliable ones but it gives you introductory information, you could say, about Denmark society in categories such as religion, holidays, sexuality, ethnic groups, education…

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